Fungi as an alternative source of proteins, chitosan and b-glucans
Mushroom production in 2014 reached about 13 billion T worldwide 6.2 billion T was cultivated in Europe. The mushroom market, in terms of value, is projected to reach over 50 billion USD by 2019, at a CAGR of 9.5% from 2014, with about 13.7 billion T produced and being the fastest-growing food sector in Europe.
This is mainly due to consumers’ significant change in food preferences and eating habits and the search for low-fat food and health and wellness awareness. Regarding the type of mushrooms, 43% is Paris champignon (Agaricus bisporus), 29% is Shiitake (Lentinula edodes), 12% is Oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), 16% other mushrooms. The average waste ratio of the mushroom industry is ranging between 5 to 20% of fresh weight and the global waste of fresh mushrooms is 1.87 billion T per year. The general nutritional composition is 20-25% of proteins, 2-3% of lipids, 8-12% ash 8-12% of the dry matter. Soluble and insoluble fibres (chitin/chitosan and b-glucans) account for 30-300 g/kg of dry matter.